Also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior.
Major areas of study in ethics include:
Meta-ethics, about the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions and how their truth values (if any) may be determined;
- Normative ethics, about the practical means of determining a moral course of action;
- Applied ethics, about how moral outcomes can be achieved in specific situations;
Each of these areas include many further sub-fields of study.
MILITARY or POLICE ETHICS:
A set of practices and philosophy to guide members of the armed forces or Law Enforcement to act in a manner consistent with the values and standards as established by military tradition, and to actively clarify and enforce these conditions rigorously in its administrative structure.
Military and Police ethics is evolutionary and the administrative structure is modified as new ethical perspectives consistent with national interests evolve.
Some ethical issues involving military and police establishment, such as:
- Justification for using force
- Race (loss of capability due to race bias or abuse)
- Gender equality (loss of capability due to gender bias or abuse)
- Age discrimination (authority based upon age)
- Nepotism (unfair control by family members; also known as “empire building”)
- Political influence (military members having a political position or political influence)
PUBLIC SERVICE ETHICS
Public service ethics is a set of principles that guide public officials in their service to their constituents, including their decision-making on behalf of their constituents. Fundamental to the concept of public service ethics is the notion that decisions and actions are based on what best serves the public’s interests, as opposed to the official’s personal interests (including financial interests) or self-serving political interests.
Latin, moralitas “manners, character, proper behavior”) is the differentiation between intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good (or right) and those that are bad (or wrong).
A moral code is a system of morality (for example, according to a particular philosophy, religion, culture, etc.) and a moral is any one practice or teaching within a moral code.
The adjective moral is synonymous with “good” or right”. Immorality is the active opposition to morality (i.e. good or right), while amorality is variously defined as an unawareness of, indifference toward, or disbelief in any set of moral standards or principles.
Also known as forswearing, is the willful act of swearing a false oath or affirmation to tell the truth, whether spoken or in writing, concerning matters material to a judicial proceeding. That is, the witness falsely promises to tell the truth about matters which affect the outcome of the case. For example, it is not considered perjury to lie about one’s age unless age is a factor in determining the legal result, such as eligibility for old age retirement benefits.
Perjury is considered a serious offense as it can be used to usurp the power of the courts, resulting in miscarriages of justice. In the United States, for example, the general perjury statute under Federal law defines perjury as a felony and provides for a prison sentence of up to five years. On the other hand, the California Penal Code allows for perjury to be a capital offense in cases causing wrongful execution.
The rules for perjury also apply when a person has made a statement under penalty of perjury, even if the person has not been sworn or affirmed as a witness before an appropriate official.
An example of this is the United States’ income tax return, which, by law, must be signed as true and correct under penalty of perjury (see 26 U.S.C. § 6065). Federal tax law provides criminal penalties of up to three years in prison for violation of the tax return perjury statute. See: 26 U.S.C. § 7206(1)
Statements of interpretation of fact are not perjury because people often make inaccurate statements unwittingly and not deliberately Individuals may have honest but mistaken beliefs about certain facts, or their recollection may be inaccurate. Like most other crimes in the common law system, to be convicted of perjury one must have had the intention (mens rea) to commit the act, and to have actually committed the act (actus reus).Subornation of perjury, attempting to induce another person to perjure themselves, is itself a crime.
A written sworn statement of fact voluntarily made by an affiant or deponent under an oath or affirmation administered by a person authorized to do so by law. Such statement is witnessed as to the authenticity of the affiant’s signature by a taker of oaths, such as a notary public or commissioner of oaths. The name is Medieval Latin for he has declared upon oath. An affidavit is a type of verified statement or showing, or in other words, it contains a verification, meaning it is under oath or penalty of perjury, and this serves as evidence to its veracity and is required for court proceedings.
- To obtain a declaration on a legal document, such as an application for voter registration, that the information provided by the applicant is truthful to the best of the applicant’s knowledge. If, after signing such a declaration, the information is found to be deliberately untrue with the intent to deceive, the applicant may face perjury charges.
Affidavits may be written in the first or third person, depending on who drafted the document. If in the first person, the document’s component parts are:
- acommencement which identifies the affiant;
- the individual averments, almost always numbered as mandated by law, each one making a separate claim;
- astatement of truth generally stating that everything is true, under penalty of perjury, fine, or imprisonment;
- an attestationclause, usually a jurat, at the end certifying the affiant made oath and the date; and
- signatures of the author and witness.
If an affidavit is notarized or authenticated, it will also include a caption with a venue and title in reference to judicial proceedings. In some cases, an introductory clause, called a preamble, is added attesting that the affiant personally appeared before the authenticating authority.